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南京同声传译中状语的处理方法

   在英汉翻译中,状语的处理也是一个很重要的问题。汉语的状语一般在前面,英语的状语就很灵活了,有的前置,有的后置。前置状语跟汉语习惯相同,同声传译中不存在太大问题。但是遇到后置状语,我们还是需要采用一些技巧予以应对。

  1、译为欧化句式

  (1)People of the same trade seldom meet together even for merriment and diversion, but the conversation ends in a conspiracy against the public or some contrivance to raise price.

  同行很少相聚,哪怕是为了娱乐和消遣。可是一旦相聚,结果总是阴谋对付百姓,或想方设法提价。

  (2)Frankly, ideas and goods will travel around the globe with or without our help.

  坦率地讲,思想和商品将会在全球流通,不管有没有我们的帮助。

  (3)People who for years have been denied their pasts,have began searching for their own identities, often through peaceful and constructive means,occasionally through factionalism and blood shed.

  多年来,有些民族的历史被否定,但他们现在已经开始寻找自我,通常以和平和建设性方式,偶尔也诉诸宗派主义和流血。

  (4)The American people were shocked by these events. We were greatly surprised to learn of our diminished economic and military strength;we were demoralized by the treatment of our hostages in Iran; and we were outraged by the harsh attacks on the United States in the United Nations.

  美国人民对这些事件感到震惊。我们感到十分惊奇,因为我们得知自己的经济、军事力量在缩小;我们士气低沉,因为我们的人质在伊朗受到如此的待遇;我们义愤填膺,因为我们在联合国遭受大肆攻击。(by短语较短时可以逆向翻译,如第一句)

  如果汉语中将本应前置的原因、条件、让步状语从句等后置,语调一般应比较低。

  2、重复被修饰部分(与定语类似)

  (5)We were all affected, positively and negatively, by developments beyond our borders.

  我们都受到了影响,或积极影响或消极影响,都受到了边界之外事态发展的影响。

  (6)Everyone was optimistic,because everything had changed----it appeared for the better----since I first attended a session of the General Assembly at the height of the cold war back in the 1950s.

  人人都感到乐观,因为一切都发生了变化──似乎变好了──自从我第一次参加联大、在冷战高峰期50年代参加联大以来,一切都变了。

  3、借用书面语句式

  (7)In the changing world today,with problems increasing both in number and in dimension,human society in general ----and small countries in particular----are placing special hope on the United Nations.

  在不断变化的当今世界上,各种问题在数量和范围上都在增加,整个人类社会,尤其是小国,特别寄希望于联合国。

  4、独立成句

  (8)It has been 16 years since I first stayed in this district of Beijing on my first visit when I stayed at the friendship hotel.

  十六年前,我第一次来到北京这个地区,那是我初次访华,当时住在友谊宾馆。

  (9)Special Economic Zones could become instrumental in stimulating such centers of excellence through favorable policies that would attract them to the Zones.

  经济特区可以帮助创立这样的龙头地区,办法是通过优惠政策,将它们吸引到特区来。

  5、追加

  (10)Since China has already undertaken the wise decision to invest the equivalent of one trillion US dollars into the infrastructural development of especially the inner regions during the next three years as a key component to overcome unemployment…

  因为中国已经明智地决定投资一万亿美圆兴建基础设施、特别是内地的基础设施──在未来三年中──作为克服失业的重要手段……

  句末出现的时间状语往往很难加进去,可以用较低的声调追加出来,如果不重要或为大家熟知的事实,则可略去不译。

  以上这些是在同声传译中,如何处理英语中后置状语的技巧,需要大家在以后的实践中慢慢积累、领会。

 

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